Reformer of Hydrogen Plant
With the gradual increase of refinery hydrogenation units, more and more hydrogen is needed, which makes the hydrogen production equipment develop rapidly.At present, the hydrogen production methods used in large industrial installations are all hydrocarbon steam conversion methods, and the raw materials used are mainly natural gas, refinery gas, naphtha and other light hydrocarbons.These hydrocarbons react with water vapor at specific temperatures, pressures, and catalysts to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide.The steam reforming reaction of hydrocarbon compounds is a complex reaction equilibrium system.Macromolecular hydrocarbons are first cracked or converted to methane and finally converted with water vapor. Generally expressed in the following reaction formula:
CnHm + 2H2O → Cn-1Hm-2 + CO2 + 3H2 – Q
CH4 + 2H2O = CO2 + 4H2 – Q
CO2 + H2 = CO + H2O - Q
The reformer is a reactor for the conversion reaction in a hydrogen production unit and belongs to the heart device of the equipment.This is a very special external heat type tubular reactor.Due to the strong endothermic and high-temperature characteristics of the conversion reaction, the reactor is designed in the form of a heating furnace. The catalyst is placed in the reforming furnace tube, heated directly in the furnace,and the reaction medium reacts through the catalyst bed in the furnace tube.
The harsh operating conditions of the reformer make this furnace have many specialties different from those of other furnaces, such as furnace structure, furnace tube material, piping system support, piping system stress, piping system expansion and compensation, combustion, Flue gas flow and distribution, refractory materials and other aspects must be carefully considered.